Word – Music – Ritual


Comparative Studies of Ideas and Cultures (3rd level)

Slovene Studies – tradition and modernity

Course code: 85

Year of study: Brez letnika

Course principal:
Assist. Prof. Metoda Kokole, Ph.D.


Workload: lectures 60 hours, seminar 30 hours

Course type: general elective

Languages: Slovene

Learning and teaching methods: lectures, discussion classes

Objectives and competences

A comprehensive understanding of selected material in the history of Slovenian musical culture in connection with general cultural trends. Learning about the development of music in Slovenia and influences on it. Understanding the social and historical movements in the creation and performance of music in Slovenia. Supplementing a basic understanding of the role of music in national culture, and placing Slovenian music trends within a wider European context. Developing the ability to apply general and cultural-historical concepts to music history. Developing the ability to reach conclusions, conduct analyses, and find appropriate answers to selected specific questions independently. The ability to apply what is learned within a wider context.



None required.


Content (Syllabus outline)

Interest in historical musicology has spread to encompass musical life along with all the factors and rules that have constituted it. In addition to who created which works and who performed them, questions such as what audiences they were meant for and how the public received them are also important. How a certain piece was understood and what meaning was ascribed to it – or, in other words, how it functioned as a sign and obtained a specific meaning – depended on the context of time and space; that is, on the space of culture and its tradition, or the social, political, cultural, and historical space.


Although the findings of professional studies have confirmed and continue to confirm that the musics of peripheral areas followed the example of the music of large nations and that they are thus similar in terms of development, they cannot be equated. The fact is that Slovenian music was both broadly “European” and specific or idiosyncratic. The study of the Slovenian musical past thus includes two aspects:

  1. the establishment of similarities, possible role models, and influences, and
  2. above all the identification of its special features.


This course is taught in six thematic sections:

1. Introduction

  • Specific features of music-history research and work methodology
  • Presentation of the historical and systematic part of musicology as a discipline that studies music
  • Learning about various approaches to studying musical culture, as well as sources and literature for studying music in Slovenia
  • Music tradition, music identity, national music, and national elements in music in general and in Slovenia


2. Music and musical life in Slovenia until the end of the seventeenth century: Between German and Italian influences

  • German influences from the north: music life in ethnically Slovenian lands until the Protestant Reformation
  • Religious music and its creators until the end of the sixteenth century
  • Iacobus Handl Gallus (1550–1591): creativity and importance
  • The first heralds of Italian influence: music in the second half of the sixteenth century
  • Predominance of Italian stylistic currents in the seventeenth century: the period of Counter-Reformation influence in music
  • Instrumental music and the beginnings of opera performance in Slovenia


3. The eighteenth century: Musical activities of the Upper Carniola nobility and the beginnings of institutionalized music

  • Religious music in Slovenia in the first half of the eighteenth century
  • The first music society in Slovenia and beyond: The Academia Philharmonicorum Labacensium (Ljubljana Philharmonic Society, 1701–ca. 1769)
  • Music repertoire and works of the members of the Academia Philharmonicorum (Philharmonic Society)
  • The first theatre in Slovenia (founded in 1764) and guest performances by traveling opera ensembles in the eighteenth century
  • Early musical classicism in Slovenian performance practice


4. Until 1848: Music and society

  • Social and institutional changes at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries
  • Programme, operation, and developmental significance of the Philharmonische Gesellschaft (Philharmonic Society)
  • Overview of the repertoire of the Theatre of the Estates
  • Performance and creative levels of Slovenian musical work
  • Popular music and hymnals in Slovenian


5. From 1848 to the end of the First World War: Music and politics

  • Political and institutional changes in the mid-nineteenth century
  • The role of music in attaining national goals; musical work performed by the reading societies and the Drama Society
  • Institutionalization of Slovenian music and art: the establishment of the Music Society
  • The importance of folk songs in shaping national musical identity, and the features of Slovenian choral singing
  • Starting points, tasks, and goals of the Cecilian movement in Slovenia


6. After 1918: Tradition and the present

  • New music and esthetic initiatives at the turn of the century
  • Music in the interwar period: tradition and the present as creative options
  • A wide variety of content, forms, and means of music expression
  • Opportunities and initiatives for creative and performing work after the Second World War
  • Slovenian music in the twenty-first century



Basic literature

  • Barbo, Matjaž. 2002. Pro musica viva, Ljubljana.
  • Cvetko, Dragotin. 1991. Slovenska glasba v evropskem okviru, Ljubljana.
  • Snoj, Jurij in Gregor Pompe. 2003. Pisna podoba glasbe na Slovenskem, Ljubljana.
  • Rijavec, Andrej. 1979. Slovenska glasbena dela, Ljubljana.
  • Höfler, Janez. 1978. Glasbena umetnost pozne renesanse in baroka na Slovenskem, Ljubljana.
  • Klemenčič, Ivan. 1988. Slovenski glasbeni ekspresionizem, Ljubljana.
  • Sivec, Jože. 1971. Opera v Stanovskem gledališču v Ljubljani od leta 1790 do 1865, Ljubljana.
  • Kuret, Primož. 2001. Slovenska filharmonija. Academia philharmnonicorum 1701–2001, Ljubljana.


Selected articles in Slovenian journals (by arrangement)

  • Muzikološki zbornik (from 1965).
  • De musica disserenda (from 2005).
  • Simpozijski zborniki, ki obravnavajo glasbo na Slovenskem.


Optional or additional literature

  • Barbo, Matjaž. 2004. Obča muzikologija, Ljubljana.
  • Stefanija, Leon. 2004. Metode analize glasbe: zgodovinsko-teoretski oris, Ljubljana.


Aditional references (sheet music and audio recordings)

  • Notne izdaje zbirke Monumenta artis musicae Sloveniae, Ljubljana from 1983.
  • Notne izdaje Društva slovenskih skladateljev.
  • Musica noster amor, ed. I. Klemenčič, Maribor 2000.
  • Glasbena dediščina Slovenije, Ljubljana: Edition Bizjak, 1987–1997 (note in zvočni posnetki).



  • Students must complete a term project in order to take the exam.
  • Students then take an oral or written exam covering the overall material discussed.


Ecoculture: Studies of Animals and Nature in Folklore, Literature and Culture ǀ

Assoc. Prof. Marjetka Golež Kaučič, Ph.D.,


Folk and Literary: Folklore and Intertextual Aspects ǀ

Assoc. Prof. Marjetka Golež Kaučič, Ph.D.,


Intertextuality and Cultural Memory ǀ

Prof. Marko Juvan, Ph. D.,


Ritual ǀ

Assoc. Prof. Marjetka Golež Kaučič, Ph.D.,


Short folklore forms in culture and society ǀ

Asist. prof. Saša Babič, Ph. D.,


Slovenian Emigrants between Tradition and the Present ǀ

Prof. Marina Lukšič Hacin, Ph.D.,


The Language of Objects: Topics in Slovenian Material Culture ǀ

Prof. Maja Godina Golija, Ph.D.,


The Role of Woman in Slovenian Society and Culture ǀ

Assoc. Prof. Mirjam Milharčič Hladnik, Ph.D.,


Tradition and Ethics ǀ

Prof. Edvard Kovač, Ph.D.,


Tragedy in Theater, Culture, and Society ǀ

Prof. Krištof Jacek Kozak, Ph. D.,


Word – Music – Ritual ǀ

Assist. Prof. Metoda Kokole, Ph.D.,